EU countries have autonomy in many aspects of their policy-making, including foreign policy, but are linked to the EU`s judicial and legislative bodies. Although Ireland and the United Kingdom are not parties to the Schengen Agreement, they may, with the agreement of the Council of the EU, apply all or part of the Schengen acquis and participate in its further development. They do not issue Schengen visas and only partially apply the Schengen Agreement. The Council of the EU has approved a request from both countries to participate in enhanced cooperation between police and judicial authorities in criminal matters, the fight against drug-related crime and the Schengen Information System (SIS). However, neither country has abolished border controls. The Schengen area has a population of nearly 420 million people and an area of 4,312,099 square kilometers (1,664,911 square miles). [2] Some 1.7 million people go to work every day across an intra-European border and, in some regions, these people represent up to a third of the working population. Each year, there are a total of 1.3 billion border crossings. 57 million crossings are due to the transport of goods by road, worth €2.8 trillion per year. [3] [4] [5] The decrease in trade costs due to Schengen varies between 0.42% and 1.59% depending on geography, trading partners and other factors. Countries outside the Schengen area also benefit. [6] Schengen states have tightened border controls with non-Schengen countries.

[7] After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced the complete closure of their national borders in mid-March, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said: “Some controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not considered the most effective by the World Health Organisation. In addition, they have a strong social and economic impact, disrupting the lives of people and businesses across borders. [166] Von der Leyen also apologized to Italy, amid widespread discontent among Italians over Europe`s lack of solidarity. [167] At the end of March 2020, almost all internal borders in the Schengen area were closed to non-essential travel. By July 2020, most of the borders closed due to the coronavirus had reopened. Certain areas of the Schengen Member States are exempt from the Schengen Agreement. Territories outside Europe are not part of the Schengen area. The only areas of the Schengen Member States located in Europe but excluded are the Faroe Islands and Spitsbergen.

The Norwegian territory of Spitsbergen has a special status under international law. It is not part of the EU or the Schengen area. For two Schengen countries, total trade between them is growing by about 0.1% per year. For every annual increase in immigration between countries of 1%, the same increase in trade is again achieved. [115] [3] On average, the removal of controls at each border is equivalent to the removal of a 0.7% duty, and cost savings on a trade route increase with the number of internal borders crossed. Countries outside the Schengen area also benefit. [6] The Schengen area originally had its legal basis outside the European Economic Community at the time, as it was established by a subset of Community Member States by means of two international agreements: Schengen States that share an external land border with a non-EU Member State have the right, pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1931/2006, to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries for the purpose of implementing a regulation for loka Close or maintain border traffic. [273] Such agreements define a border area that can extend up to a maximum of 50 kilometres (31 miles) on both sides of the border and provide for the granting of permits for local border traffic to residents of the border area. Permits may be used to cross the border within the border area, are not stamped when crossing the border and must indicate the name and photo of the holder, as well as a statement that the holder is not allowed to move outside the border area and that any abuse will be punishable by penalties. .

Andrew Verboncouer • (920) 562-9601 • andrewverbs@gmail.com@averbs